Build this project at our next weekend-long Arduino workshop!

Breadboard Piano

The Breadboard Piano plays tones as you move a wire between sockets on your breadboard. When you close one of five circuits, Arduino plays one of five different tones. By moving the wire between sockets, you choose which tone to play.

Hardware

You’ll need the following to get started:

Wiring

Wire up your Arduino as shown in the image below:

Fritzing diagram

The colors of the wires are purely cosmetic; you don’t need to match the colors shown in the diagram.

Software

  1. Copy the following code into a new Arduino sketch:

     /**   
      *  Create a very simple "breadboard" piano using a jumper wire to simulate pressing each "piano" key.
      *  This one has 5 notes, but you can expand it using more digital IO pins.
      *   
      *  author:
      *   Rolf Widenfelt - Feb 2014 - Workshop Weekend
     **/
    
     #include "pitches.h"
    
     int tonepin = 9;  // PWM0 output = 9, PWM1 output = 10
    
     // these are the "piano keys" - they are just input pins
     #define D2 2
     #define D3 3
     #define D4 4
     #define D5 5
     #define D6 6    
    
     void setup() {          
       // setup internal pullups on "piano keys" (pins D2 through D6)
       pinMode(D2, INPUT);
       pinMode(D3, INPUT);
       pinMode(D4, INPUT);
       pinMode(D5, INPUT);
       pinMode(D6, INPUT);
       digitalWrite(D2, HIGH);
       digitalWrite(D3, HIGH);
       digitalWrite(D4, HIGH);
       digitalWrite(D5, HIGH);
       digitalWrite(D6, HIGH);
     }    
    
     void loop() {
       while (1) {    
         // scan "piano keys" for one that is "pressed"
         if (digitalRead(D6) == LOW) {
           tone(tonepin, NOTE_C4);
         } else if (digitalRead(D5) == LOW) {
           tone(tonepin, NOTE_D4);
         } else if (digitalRead(D4) == LOW) {
           tone(tonepin, NOTE_E4);
         } else if (digitalRead(D3) == LOW) {
           tone(tonepin, NOTE_F4);
         } else if (digitalRead(D2) == LOW) {
           tone(tonepin, NOTE_G4);
         } else {
           noTone(tonepin);
         }
         delay(100);    // probably not needed.. you can experiment!
       }
     }
    
  2. Create a new tab: Click the little triangle just under the Serial Monitor button on the right side of the window and select New Tab.

  3. Name that new tab pitches.h.

  4. Copy the following code into the tab called pitches.h:

     /*************************************************
      * Public Constants
      *************************************************/
    
     #define NOTE_B0  31
     #define NOTE_C1  33
     #define NOTE_CS1 35
     #define NOTE_D1  37
     #define NOTE_DS1 39
     #define NOTE_E1  41
     #define NOTE_F1  44
     #define NOTE_FS1 46
     #define NOTE_G1  49
     #define NOTE_GS1 52
     #define NOTE_A1  55
     #define NOTE_AS1 58
     #define NOTE_B1  62
     #define NOTE_C2  65
     #define NOTE_CS2 69
     #define NOTE_D2  73
     #define NOTE_DS2 78
     #define NOTE_E2  82
     #define NOTE_F2  87
     #define NOTE_FS2 93
     #define NOTE_G2  98
     #define NOTE_GS2 104
     #define NOTE_A2  110
     #define NOTE_AS2 117
     #define NOTE_B2  123
     #define NOTE_C3  131
     #define NOTE_CS3 139
     #define NOTE_D3  147
     #define NOTE_DS3 156
     #define NOTE_E3  165
     #define NOTE_F3  175
     #define NOTE_FS3 185
     #define NOTE_G3  196
     #define NOTE_GS3 208
     #define NOTE_A3  220
     #define NOTE_AS3 233
     #define NOTE_B3  247
     #define NOTE_C4  262
     #define NOTE_CS4 277
     #define NOTE_D4  294
     #define NOTE_DS4 311
     #define NOTE_E4  330
     #define NOTE_F4  349
     #define NOTE_FS4 370
     #define NOTE_G4  392
     #define NOTE_GS4 415
     #define NOTE_A4  440
     #define NOTE_AS4 466
     #define NOTE_B4  494
     #define NOTE_C5  523
     #define NOTE_CS5 554
     #define NOTE_D5  587
     #define NOTE_DS5 622
     #define NOTE_E5  659
     #define NOTE_F5  698
     #define NOTE_FS5 740
     #define NOTE_G5  784
     #define NOTE_GS5 831
     #define NOTE_A5  880
     #define NOTE_AS5 932
     #define NOTE_B5  988
     #define NOTE_C6  1047
     #define NOTE_CS6 1109
     #define NOTE_D6  1175
     #define NOTE_DS6 1245
     #define NOTE_E6  1319
     #define NOTE_F6  1397
     #define NOTE_FS6 1480
     #define NOTE_G6  1568
     #define NOTE_GS6 1661
     #define NOTE_A6  1760
     #define NOTE_AS6 1865
     #define NOTE_B6  1976
     #define NOTE_C7  2093
     #define NOTE_CS7 2217
     #define NOTE_D7  2349
     #define NOTE_DS7 2489
     #define NOTE_E7  2637
     #define NOTE_F7  2794
     #define NOTE_FS7 2960
     #define NOTE_G7  3136
     #define NOTE_GS7 3322
     #define NOTE_A7  3520
     #define NOTE_AS7 3729
     #define NOTE_B7  3951
     #define NOTE_C8  4186
     #define NOTE_CS8 4435
     #define NOTE_D8  4699
     #define NOTE_DS8 4978
    
  5. Upload the project to your Arduino.

  6. Move the black wire between the multicolored wires to play different tones.

Variations